X1 Awareness of industrial processes

Posted: October 10, 2010 in Extension (KS4/5)

Manufacturing methods:

Forming- Liquid state, plastic state, solid state

Cutting- Sheet cutting, chip forming, nonchip forming, flame/laser

Joining- Solder/braze, weld, adhesive, mechanical

Finishing- formed, abrasive/cut, coatings

Metal can be cast in liquid state where it is heated above melt temperature, then pored or injected into a mold, or as a powder in the fluid state.  Casting is an efficient way to get metal where it is required usually eliminating the need for machining or assembly.  New castings processes are in fluid state forming.  In squeeze forming or thixomolding, magnesium is heated to near melt temperature, it is then squeezed into a mold under high pressure.  In metal injection molding, metal powder is mixed with a binder, then heated and injected into a mold.

Metal cutting:  In nonchip forming, chemical/electrical, chemical, mechanical and/or thermal processes are used to cut metal.  Sheet metal punching or shearing is important in industrial design especially in office products and equipment design.  Punching is done by a CNC sheet metal machining center with limited contouring and forming abilities, these machines are extremely accurate and fast and perform rapid tool changes.  Nonchip forming cutting machining includes lathe turning, mills, grinding, broach drilling and boring.

Metal joining can be done through thermo joining such as welding and soldering, adhesives and mechanical methods such as screws, bolts, nuts, studs, inserts which are all threaded.  Special purpose methods such as, stamped spring steel, quick operating, stud clips, wire twist and plastic.  Also there are non threaded methods such as rivets, pins, retaining rings and washers.

Finishings and coatings

Finishings and coatings are important because appearance is one of the prime responsibilities of an industrial designer.  Appearance, form and finish are determining aspects of a product.  Appearance can play a deciding factor in the success or failure of a product in both the consumer market and the industrial market.  While the finish is a key aspect of appearance, the protective and functional aspects of the finish are equally important.  The options available will have to be chosen through the same sort of cost benefit analysis is utilized in all design decisions.  All aspects of finish must be considered including cost, compatibility, colour, gloss, texture and durability.  The final choice should not be made after the product has been designed.  The finish is one of the factors that must be taken into account when a decision is made to begin the design process.

Appearance finishing and coatings

Formed textures – molded textures, rolled textures, woven screen

Cut textures and abrasive finishing

Machined patterns- milled textures, perforated finishes and expanded patterns.                                                                                                                     Abrasive finishing- finishing operations, deburring, wire brush,grinding fluids.

Protective and decorative coatings –

Interim – conversion, and anodic.   Durable – organic, inorganic.  Permanent – hot dip, mechanical plating, electroplating, electroless plating, vacuum metalizing, sputtering and flame spraying                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Plastics

Liquid state thermoset forming

Part forming- Casting, foam molding, contact molding, spray-up process, reaction injection molding, transfer molding, compression molding, reinforced plastic molding, injection molding

Stock sheet and shape forming- Extrusion, pultrusion, laminating

Thermoplastic forming liquid state

Part forming- Casting/potting, rotational molding, compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding

Stock sheet/shape forming – extrusion, calendering, pultrusion

Joining plastics

Chemical bond- Adhesives, solvent

Welding – Friction- ultrasonic, spin,vibration.

Applied heat – Hot plate, induction, stake/swedge.

Mechanical – Displacement – snap fit, pop on.

Molded – Threads, interlock, press fit

Fasteners – Rivets, screws, inserts


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